An ancient form of wrestling and fighting from India, also called Mallavidya, 'science of combat'. Probably developed during the 10th century by a Brahmin caste in the west of India. It was mainly religiously inspired. The combatants wore a knuckle-duster on one hand. Blows were only permitted to the face or chest. Being just a form of boxing and not an art of combat, contestants often died from their injuries. This savage type of fighting is no longer popular today, but ritual contests are still held anually in Gujurat. Some of the techniques influenced the art of Kalaripayat.

Vo Tu Do
'Free martial art'. Vietnamese boxing sport created in Saigon in 1954 with contests taking place in a boxing ring.